Domino is a generic name for a game in which players lay out tiles, similar to dice and playing cards. The tiles are divided by a line down the center and are either blank or have a number of spots called pips. The tiles are usually played with a domino board, which is a circular or rectangular surface divided by a line down the middle.
The origin of dominoes is unknown, but it appears to have been introduced in France shortly after 1750. The word “domino” originally referred to a long hooded cape worn by a priest during carnival season or at a masquerade, and may have influenced the design of the playing piece.
European-style domino sets are typically made from bone, silver lip ocean pearl oyster shell (MOP), ivory or a dark hardwood such as ebony with contrasting black or white pips. Alternatively, they can be made from stone or other natural materials such as marble, granite or soapstone.
Some people play dominoes as a recreational activity, laying out the tiles in long lines and tossing them over their heads in a contest of skill and chance. Many also use them to create intricate designs by stacking them in rows and then tipping them over one at a time.
When the first domino falls, it releases a certain amount of energy that can be used to push on the next. This is known as the domino effect.
If enough energy is released, a single domino can knock down the following dominos in a series, producing an exponential chain reaction. According to the physics professor Lorne Whitehead, this process can produce an amplification factor of about 2 billion when the sequence is repeated twenty times!
In an industrial setting, the domino effect can cause significant accidents in chemical process plants. These accidents may have serious consequences, such as damage to equipment or fatalities. Therefore, a proper analysis and risk assessment of the domino effect is essential for plant safety.
The analysis of the domino effect is complex and requires sophisticated data. There are several methods for analyzing the domino effect, including threshold methods, distance-based methods and probit methods. However, the selection of the best method depends on the purpose of the study and the level of analysis required.
To prevent or mitigate domino effects, plant layouts should be designed so that there is a safe distance between the different chemicals and their potential points of contact. This should include both fixed and mobile equipment.
Some companies are able to reduce the number of hazards by minimizing the number of potential points of contact between chemicals, such as using multiple barriers or installing gaskets between equipment. These measures often require additional cost.
The domino effect is a common phenomenon in chemical process accident risk analysis. It has been widely studied and used to determine the likelihood of accidents and to develop strategies for preventing or mitigating such incidents. The majority of such incidents have been attributed to the use of flammable or explosive gases and solvents, though some of them may also involve other processes or chemicals that have similar properties.